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Tom Stewart is the number one interceptor for Geelong, averaging seven intercepts per game to go along with his 21 disposals per game.

He has continued this form tonight, with three of his five intercepts coming in the form of a mark. The Blues responded well after conceding the first four goals of the match.

Since the Cats last goal at the 11 minute mark, the Blues have lead inside 50s 10 to six and have kicked 2. Kade Simpson has been heavily involved in the resurgence of the Blues, leading the match in disposals with 10 to go with his metres gained.

This is just the second time this year that Simpson has won 10 or more disposals in a quarter. The Blues are dominating possession, with every player registering at least one disposal.

Conversely the Cats have five players yet to find the football. Carlton is ranked last for disposals in The Blues are well on top in the clearances leading nine to three, including a domination at centre bounces where they lead clearances five to nil.

The Cats four goal lead has been on the back of an impressive 83 per cent kicking efficiency. The Blues are kicking at a poor 54 per cent, which is evident on the scoreboard with three of the Cats four goals being sourced from turnovers.

The Cats remarkable efficiency in the forward line continues, kicking three goals from their first three forward entries. Last week v Essendon, the Cats averaged a goal from The Cats have scored goals from their first two inside 50s.

The first goal of the match comes through the debutant Jones who capitalises from a costly turnover deep in defence for the Blues.

It has been a scrappy start, with five turnovers between the two sides in the opening four minutes. Their last match at the venue was played back in , where they lost by 28 points and Full Back Team of the Century Stephen Silvagni topped the goal-kicking list with three.

Small forward Jamaine Jones will debut for Geelong tonight, their fifth debutant of the season. From the start of Geelong has now blooded 13 debutants, the most of any side.

The selected 22 tonight for Geelong has an average age of Alternatively, Carlton's average age of their side is Don't forget to enter your tips for this match, you have until the bounce to make your selection.

An uninspiring performance from the Cats that will again cast doubt over their premiership credentials and a horrific broken ankle that, in all likelihood will end the season of young forward Esava Ratugolea soured the Ablett tribute.

Esava Ratugolea was taken off on the stretcher after this contest. Nevertheless, Ablett finished with 25 touches and a goal in his first game in the Geelong hoops at the stadium since Cats forward Tom Hawkins booted two final quarter goals to inflate his side's lead, as the Cats closed out the When the Cats went up by four goals with just 11 minutes played in the game, the pro-Geelong crowd could have been forgiven for starting to remove the balloons and streamers from their bags and start the party early.

Debutant Jamaine Jones had kicked his first goal with his first kick in the AFL and Ablett had brought the Cats fans to their feet with a dead-eye set shot.

How good is that? Jamaine Jones kicks his first League goal inside his first three minutes. But from then on the game did not follow the idyllic script the pro-Cats crowd wanted, and instead became the scrap Blues coach Brendon Bolton would have been proud to see.

Unlike last week when it lost to Melbourne by points, Carlton did not roll over and throw in the towel. Still, Geelong had too much class across the board with Cats defender Tom Stewart again outstanding with 26 disposals, 10 marks and 11 intercept possessions, while Patrick Dangerfield sparked the midfield with 29 touches.

Sam Menegola was influential throughout the game with 23 touches, 10 tackles and two goals — one that came in sensational circumstances late in the final term.

Hawkins stepped up to boot three goals with his role in leading the forward line in Ratugolea's absence to become even more pivotal over the coming weeks.

I thought it was a horrible game. I don't think we helped ourselves much, I thought we were undisciplined at times and gave them a chance to get into the game.

The scene would have been all too familiar for Carlton when they trailed the Cats by 24 points early in the first quarter in their first match at Kardinia Park since , but led by their senior leaders they were able to fight back into the contest and make Geelong work for their victory on home turf.

Kade Simpson 33 disposals , Patrick Cripps 30 and Ed Curnow 30 were all vital in the Blues' much-improved effort, while Charlie Curnow looked dangerous every time he went near the footy in his return from a quad injury.

The Blues closed the margin to eight points in the final quarter but their inaccuracy in front of goal they booted 5.

Geelong moved back into the top eight and will stay there when the round ends, but Ratugolea's injury could have far reaching repercussions for its hopes and dreams of hoisting the premiership cup aloft at the end of the year.

Ratugolea was stretchered from the field in the second quarter after he got his right leg awkwardly trapped underneath his body in a marking contest.

Presumably this was to compensate for the long gap between Rome and Okeanos, since many players had been able to finish leveling most of their Servants.

Still, it's a fairly minor step up compared to what came a few chapters later. Camelot is much more difficult than any other story chapter up to it.

Enemies that showed up in the previous chapter as a Boss In Mooks Clothing now show up in more plentiful amounts, the Servants themselves are as tough as ever, and the Knights of the Round Table in particular come with "gifts" that make them much tougher ex.

Gawain taking reduced damage and charging his NP faster, Mordred always having a fully charged NP at the start of each turn.

Camelot is considered to be arguably the most difficult chapter in the game with the next chapter allowing you to opt out of the more difficult boss challenges.

Epic of Remnant begins playing around with new mechanics such as multiple health bars, enemy taunt abilities and more hazard effects.

It's perhaps not quite as difficult as Camelot or Babylonia once you're used to it, but the new mechanics can throw people for a loop, especially as gauge breaks often clear enemy debuffs or cause them to instantly use a powerful skill without using their turn.

The Shimosa chapter of Epic of Remnant is currently the holder of hardest chapter which is even harder than Camelot not only because of powerful bosses, but the most difficult battles in the chapter prevents players from using Friend Supports.

This was the purpose of the "Prison Tower" questline with several tough enemies and bosses and to make it more difficult for players, Edmond Dantes was your only support for six of the battles.

To drive it home, to even participate you had to have already cleared the most recent Singularity in London. It's a raid quest with only Ibaraki-douji as the only raid boss which all players attack to whittle down her massive HP bar in the trillions at minimum two trillion and you can do any of the three quests to fight her.

The lowest one gives you , HP to shave off that trillions health bar, while the highest gives you 6 million. Up until the point it was rerun, it was considered probably the hardest event to date, to the point that players were required to have completed America the 5th and most recent Singularity at the time in order to participate in it.

However, an evolving metagame made the event much more accessible to casual players. Starting with Nero Fest , new events began adding in challenge quests that were completely optional but much more difficult than the free or main quests.

Nero Fest in particular was considered particularly brutal with some fights like Gilgamesh or the final boss rush, which was quickly nerfed when it turned out even more difficult than expected, partially due to a few bugs like Nero granting infinite Guts to her teammates.

The Setsubun event is currently the most difficult "Challenge event" since it requires beating the Final Boss of Part One as well and the event itself not only bans Friend Supports, but also demands players to have a lot of efficiently raised Servants as possible and carefully manage them.

This is what serves as the dying animation in gameplay. Servants still dissipate into a cloud of light when defeated.

Shadow Servants and most enemies disappear in a foggy purple cloud when killed. Any enemy killed by King Hassan's NP doesn't have a dying animation; they only drop loot and disappear after the NP animation finishes.

One from the Seraphix oil rig kicks off the CCC crossover as the protagonist goes to find out what happened.

The PDF file for Babylonia's story clocks in at one thousand pages of text. The Salem chapter of Epic of Remnant has been stated to have the highest word count in the game.

The summer event centers around several Servants creating their own fan comics to sell. The game also include Craft Essences that are based on said comics.

The game is full of these. Besides the Demon Pillars and the Beasts , in Salem, we have the trope namers themselves, the Outer Gods as it is a Lovecraftian horror story, with one possessing Abigail Williams after Raum summons it.

An Eldritch Abomination summoning a bigger Eldritch Abomination. Although how different the Alien God from the Outer Gods isn't clear yet.

The titular Lost Room of the second OVA as it shows possibilities of alternate timelines after midnight if one falls asleep in there.

The DVD booklet reveals that there were one too many incidents happening in there and Chaldea called for it to be sealed off.

Singularity F was transformed into one after being ravaged by its Holy Grail for so long. Even after removing the root cause, the inferno still rages on and it's still a Singularity on later returns with monsters roaming about.

Altria comments in her interlude that the Fuyuki Grail's curse has tainted the entire land and Lancer Vlad believes there to be something sustaining the fires that needs to be destroyed.

In the final chapter of Babylonia, Ereshkigal provides a massive buff to the party, and Merlin uses his Fertile Feet to help keep the heroes above Tiamat's Chaos Tide, which is represented as being healed as much as the Chaos Tide can do damage.

Mechanical versions of the Camelot knights are introduced in "Great Battle at Himeji Castle", each variation having an additional buff that the originals lack.

There are two different primary kinds of currencies comprised of magic energy utilized by Chaldea in the game.

Prisms, which have two different kinds: These are crystallized mana cubes which can be traded in da Vinci's workshop for Craft Essences, Embers, and Fou cards.

The last threshold before humanity's destruction in , an alternate Fifth Heaven's Feel where the Black Grail triumphs and corrupts six of the participating Servants.

This installment of the franchise actually lets them be summoned and recruited by Chaldea. Chaldea can summon even the most villainous Heroic Spirits and get their help because the main villain of the game is basically threatening mankind's place in the space-time continuum, and Chaldea represents the last bastion of humanity against this villain.

Even those who want to subjugate the world don't want to see someone else do something even worse to it, which is why they help the player.

Exposed to the Elements: Servants in general are resistant to any extreme natural weather regardless of how clothed he or she is due to their nature as familiars.

Subverted by Summer Servants who changed to swimsuits to adapt to the summer heat and Altera the Sun ta losing her Saber self's Natural Body skill, making her less tolerant to cold and caught a fever, which makes her somewhat loopy as she tries to adjust to it.

Mash due to being a Demi-Servant is also unaffected by external temperature. However, as of events in Cosmos in the Lostbelt , her tolerance to cold has weakened due to Galahad's refusal to cooperate in the Lostbelts.

The protagonist receives a new Mystic Code for extremely cold environments upon arrival to the Ice Age-like Lostbelt of Kadoc Zemlupus.

Also Mysterious Heroine X but she is not Altria, really. Heroine X confesses that she really is Altria in her final profile portion.

And then there's the gunslinger biker maid swimsuit Alter. Altria's VA herself said in a livestream there would be more to come, stating that they'll never be able to stop the Saber-faces.

An enemy Lancelot is even programmed to fixate on and relentlessly attack Saber-faces. Jeanne and her alternate selves are also considered Saber-faces in-universe since Gilles mistakes Altria for her and Mysterious Heroine X mentions she has a slight similarity to a Saber-face.

Almost all the female Servants are either half-naked or end up that way. Some guys do this too, with several of them becoming shirtless or wearing tight bodysuits.

This is why none of the male Servants currently don't have a swimsuit version. The segment involves three different forms of "training" including balancing and bouncing on a medicine ball with everything you may expect from someone as stacked as Mash doing so, balancing on a rotating jungle gym of sorts that gives fairly generous shots of her backside, and a basic dance number broken up by her striking three sexy, if not generic, poses.

She also tends to lean down during a lot of this, often right next to the viewer as if she's actively trying to invoke a male gaze.

The male Ritsuka gets some in the shounen manga adaptation. While he prepares to cook, specific attention is given to him stretching in an apron and his butt as he looks for ingredients.

All from Mash's perspective. The underground country of Agartha turns out to be a hodgepodge of legendary locations from just various folklores, where Shangri-La, the Nightless City of the Han Dynasty, El Dorado, the City of Ys, and even the Undersea Dragon Palace are all miles away from each other.

That's because the entire thing is not real, but a construct born of Scheherazade's Noble Phantasm that brings stories to life.

As she reveals this, she also weaves in one last fantasy land, and the entire country takes off into the sky as the Flying Island of Laputa.

One of the many, many JRPG references made in the Halloween event with Robin Hood as the thief, Ibaraki and Brave Liz as the fighters, and Nitocris pulling double duty as both their mage and medic.

It's mentioned through the story that killing the Ars Goetia demons doesn't diminish their numbers in the long run, as they'll simply be summoned back to life by the King of Magic.

There are several things the game drops on the player which aren't mentioned in promotional material but are incredibly vital to the narrative by playing through Fuyuki like the world meeting its end before you even finish the prologue, Mash being a Demi-Servant, Olga dying and Dr.

Roman having to take charge of Chaldea , and Chaldea being bombed at the very beginning resulting in a critical emergency and almost all the Masters having to put in cryogenics.

Fish out of Temporal Water: They've generally adjusted on the whole though certain concepts like idol concerts and specific fields of knowledge like astrophysics which aren't covered have to be explained to them.

Played straight with Mash as she never travelled outside of Chaldea before the game's start, resulting in her having a heck of a time trying to adjust to the multiple places they rayshift to.

The protagonist generally seems to just go along with whatever's thrown at them and doesn't really bat an eye at all the exotic locales and people they meet.

The game in general involves Army of the Ages and Time Travel so there will be at least one Servant involved in a chapter who is completely foreign in both time and place with no connection with another Servant involved like Tamamo no Mae showing up in Victorian London, Li Shuwen in America, and Tawara Touta in Middle East.

The Salem sub-singularity physically incarnates Sanson, Nezha, Robin Hood, and Mata Hari, and also mentally affects them, Mash, and the protagonist to force them to fit the roles given to the party in the Witch Trials and stop them from looking too closely at certain things.

In addition, it also weakens the Servants in gameplay by halving their levels. Several interludes added after part one briefly establish that they occurred before the Salomon chapter due to Roman's presence in them.

They may have been written before the final chapter but couldn't be added in until later. Scheherazade's endgame in Agartha is to use Laputa by flying it at a high enough height for people to notice and crash it into the ground, effectively breaking the masquerade by being such a large scale incident, nobody could cover it up.

The main threat that the Londinium chapter revolves around. It's poisonous, can spawn Servants and if charged by Tesla's lightning, would consume the entire earth.

The fog from the Rashoumon event is intoxicating and poisonous, even for Servants. For Want of a Nail: Chaldea's interference, using the knowledge from El-Melloi II, creates further divergences, including: Altria and Diarmuid never fight each other since your party fights Altria first, forcing Irisviel to retreat from the area.

Kayneth helps the party after some persuasion from adult Waver and with further persuasion, eventually leave Fuyuki with Sola-Ui to go back to the Clock Tower.

He forces Diarmuid to stay behind so Sola-Ui doesn't try to do anything about her attraction with him. Gilles doesn't get a chance to summon the giant monster and so most of the fights caused by that don't happen.

The protagonists persuade Kariya to help defeat Gilgamesh during the King's Banquet and he subsequently loses to Lancelot, Diarmuid, and the protagonist's team.

Since Gilgamesh is dead, he doesn't get to corrupt Kirei. Tokiomi forces Kirei to give control over Assassin to him, removing Kirei from the conflict.

Assassin dies soon after, forcing Tokiomi into defeat. After Iskandar hears Kariya's story and motivations, he decides that Kariya's desire to kill Tokiomi is pointless since Sakura will still be part of the Matous and storms the mansion.

He frees her in exchange for Kariya giving up his right arm and kills most of the worms. After that, he sends the two to a hospital to recover.

Because Irisviel had the same modifications as Illya and thus became Saber's master, the Einzberns would have won.

Kiritsugu, who never found companionship in any form, was then picked by the Counter Force to eliminate her to stop this. This is the one factor that surprises El-Melloi II since everything else had been going the same before Chaldea came.

Irisviel, being the source of the singularity, comes with Chaldea since she's got nowhere to go now that she knows the Einzbern ritual is busted and recovering Grails is what they do.

The majority of the sixth singularity happened because Bedivere did not throw Excalibur back into the lake. Each Lostbelt is a major divergence from the main timeline, with some catastrophic event occurring at the date given and showing the possibility of what the world would be like at Anastasia takes place in a Russia where a meteor crashed in , causing a permanent Ice Age.

The only reason there are still people left is because Ivan the Terrible and his magi used their last resort, fusing everyone with magical beasts to survive.

Gotterdammerung's Lostbelt diverged from around BC during the Ragnarok when the Jotunn Surtr decided to devour Fenrir and became powerful enough to kill most of Norse Gods and possibly burn down the entire world instead of just Scandinavia, but the absence of Fenrir left Odin surviving who then sacrificed his life to seal Surtr into the sun, which caused the Ragnarok to be incomplete and left the giants still roaming the planet and consume humans to live, preventing the advancement of mankind in this timeline.

This not only foreshadows King Solomon will have a role in the story, but the Queen of Sheba herself also appears in the game during Epic of Remnant.

Mash's level cap increase foreshadows her eventual rarity upgrade in Camelot. Some Craft Essences have little background events in their artwork.

Meanwhile, Bathory's stuck flying on a kite. Altria and Shirou are on a date in the same restaurant as Taiga in the Blissful Time CE; Altria has eaten enough to stack the plates high on the table.

CE has female Hakuno chained to a bed with clear distress at her situation. Gameplay and Story Integration: It works backward from the normal interpretation such that the gameplay limitations affect the story.

However, in Heracles' Interlude, it's shown that the protagonist can't even power his Mad Enhancement properly, let alone God Hand.

Then in Agartha, Astolfo can't use his other Noble Phantasms and d'Eon's isn't as strong as it should be. When the latter two get outside sources of energy, they're able to fight significantly more effectively against Penthesilea's amazon warriors.

Storywise, it will often acknowledge if you have summoned a Servant or not when you encounter them as NPCs or enemies; with slightly different dialogue.

The ending of the Camelot Singularity very pointedly suggests that the protagonist should gather together Heroic Spirits "with whom you have fully bonded".

This is not only a rare acknowledgement of players owning Servants other than just Mash in Chaldea, but is also a gameplay mechanic for the final Singularity — higher bond level acts as an increasingly powerful passive power-up.

The Nero Festival Exhibition Battles has Servants use all of their Noble Phantasms, no longer limited by the three skill slots and one NP slot that playable versions have: Heracles has his signature God Hand which revives him twelve times.

As Mother of Warriors, Medb engages in a Zerg Rush , constantly bringing out more soldiers to defend her and wear down the party. Gilgamesh decides to use more than just throwing out weapons from the Gate of Babylon, using his treasures to grant himself special buffs.

Spartacus has Crying Warmonger active, which heals him to an absurd level each turn. Though it was mentioned in her Rider self, Medb is able to charm both sexes.

While she can only charm stun males as a Rider, her Saber form can stun both males and females. Gameplay and Story Segregation: As far as the story is concerned, your only Servant in each Singularity is Mash and your support is whoever guest-stars in the current chapter; servants that are brought by the player are completely ignored.

In gameplay, it's very probably the exact opposite: You also aren't likely to use the story support because they're typically lower level and do not have a Craft Essence equipped.

Camelot, the Part One ending, as well as most of Epic of Remnant do acknowledge the protagonist has Servants other than Mash in Chaldea, regardless whether the player currently has the Servant or not — they simply don't participate in Singularities for whatever reason.

Played with in Epic of Remnant part three as the story support version of Musashi must be brought to every duel as she supposedly goes one-on-one with her opponent, the camera transition even showing only her on the battlefield, but you can still bring in your own Servants to fight and can even swap her out of the frontline with the Plugsuit Mystic Code.

Some Servants have amazing in-lore parameters, but lower rarity, and because of that, very weak in-game.

It also works in reverse, however, such as with characters like Okita Souji, who is one of the best Sabers in the game, but outside of it is laughably weak thanks to being a relatively modern Servant and having magic tuberculosis.

Some Servants who are at the rarity you'd expect for their power level are actually considered bottom tier, such as Altria being the worst SSR Saber, even though she's a strong contender for the strongest member of the class.

The relationship between how skills and Noble Phantasms work in gameplay as opposed to the story varies.

Mash's Noble Phantasm, for example, offers two forms of damage reduction rather than the invincibility that it should, while Okita's tuberculosis actually makes her more likely to land critical hits!

Some Interludes claim that the Servant's NP has gained more power, but they don't actually have it upgraded in-game. Not all skills and Noble Phantasms available in the story can be used by the Servants, often because there's only one slot for Noble Phantasms but some Servants have more than one.

Some like Mordred and Medusa get around this by having the Noble Phantasm work as a skill instead. Several event storylines have the protagonist interact with several NPC Servants under the pretense that they are those Servants' Master, whether or not the player actually has them.

While you might have bronze or silver Servants who are part of the storyline, most players are unlikely to have all the corresponding gold Servants that appear in the event at hand.

After Salomon, Mash supposedly lost her Heroic Spirit abilities and can't fight anymore. But you can still use her in battles just fine.

Saber Gilles de Rais's profile states that he's more famous and thus more often summoned as his evil Caster version. Caster Gilles is locked to the Story Summons gacha after completing the Orleans storyline, and rare even then because there are so many other 3-star Casters; Saber Gilles can be summoned on any gacha at any time, is one of the very few 3-star Sabers, and is a meme for being such a common Servant.

In the prologue to the game's second storyline the Mage's Association has forcibly shut down the Chaldea summoning system and in doing so forcibly dispelled all of the protagonists servants.

Obviously, DW would be completely suicidal to make this actually happen in the actual game. The skills listed in the Materials books sometimes don't match the ingame skills.

Officially, however, he just has a normal Charisma skill. It seems the unique effects are just for the sake of gameplay. Charisma had long been powercrept by that point.

A staple of the Fate franchise, taken up a notch with the game's Loads and Loads of Characters. A few subversions include: Francis Drake, who is implied to be Queen Elizabeth in disguise.

Leonardo da Vinci is a man in history and mind, he just chose to manifest with the appearance of the Mona Lisa because it's his ideal form of beauty.

Quetzalcoatl, who is either using the appearance of one of the god's human hosts from history or transformed into a female as a result of her association with the planet Venus.

Miyamoto Musashi, who's from an Alternate Universe. Paul Bunyan, who is implied to have been male, but just summoned as female for some reason.

Her profile and summoning dialogue are confused as to why she's a girl. Katsushika Hokusai seems genderbent at first glance, although she is actually Hokusai's daughter Oui and the octopus thing with her is the real Hokusai.

Oui is summoned with her father as some of his works are actually made by her under her father's name. The summer event goes from a Wacky Racing tournament in part 1 to a jailbreak story in part 2.

A ship possessed by vengeful ghosts appears in Ushiwakamaru's interlude, preventing her and the protagonists from rayshifting out of the area.

The Berserker class does bonus damage to everyone else except Shielder and takes bonus damage from everyone else again, except Shielder.

This doesn't stop you from trashing enemies before they can attack you, though. They have high attack and low HP, skills that emphasize attack and they have no class advantages to utilize, barring Rulers.

The Glorious War of Sisterly Rivalry: Ishtar and Ereshkigal seemingly already bickered a lot, but if you have both of them the issue is exacerbated by the fact that thanks to the way they were summoned, they're in a sense the same person now.

God in Human Form: Divine spirits can't normally be summoned or manifest anymore because of not fully explained reasons regarding the nature of reality changing, but there are a couple workarounds.

None of them let them use their full power. One, they can manifest by using an inferior vessel that bars them from using their full strength or even several of their more powerful abilities.

The playable Quetzalcoatl works like this and while it should be the same for Stheno and Euryale, they were actually so weak in life that they're stronger as Servants and given abilities they didn't even have, such as Euryale's bow.

She has no idea where it came from and notes that it should belong to Cupid. Two, they can share a body with a compatible human, which merges their personality.

This has a stabilizing effect on her personality. Ereshkigal got the other portions of Tohsaka's personality, leading Ishtar and Ereshkigal to consider themselves to be partially the same person.

Third, they can hijack another Servant's Saint Graph, which is like the core of a Servant. This is how Artemis manifests as an Archer with Orion's abilities.

Much to her surprise in Okeanos, this bars her from using any of her true abilities or bypassing divine protections. She isn't even as strong as the real Orion because she doesn't really possess any of his skills.

The Earth has been incinerated, forcing dozens of Servants who normally wouldn't be cooperative like Caligula and Gorgon to work together for the sake of preserving the Earth and Chaldea accepts literally any Servant into their ranks for the sake of bolstering their numbers and gaining another ally to help them fight the Big Bad.

The same goes for the Beasts as they represent such a danger to humanity to the point where anything seems like a good option after enough time spent fighting them.

In Salem, it's crossed once Raum drives Abigail into madness, forcing the Servants there to pull out everything they've got for the sake of stopping her with it barely being enough to calm her down.

After the initial tutorial battle, the protagonist is woken up by Mash in a hallway. After the protagonist comes back from Fuyuki, they pass out again, and Da Vinci wakes them up and lampshades that it's very protagonist-like of them to be waking up right now.

Caster Gilgamesh in Babylonia reveals this is a lie. Anyone who dies in the paradox stays dead, though history "corrects" the method of how they died.

Such as a human killed by a dragon in France might instead be killed by disease or an animal. At the same time, this means any person who is saved is safe.

Several parts of the Japanese UI also have a little English subtitle which goes a long way for helping non-Japanese players play the game.

Kintoki either version is ripe with this, saying things like "bare knuckle" or "Golden Spark" because he thinks it's cool. Because of various nationalities between Servants, they sometimes speak in their native language like Blavatsky laughing in Russian and Xuanzang chanting the Heart Sutra in Chinese.

Certain quests particularly story quests allow you to bring along a Servant who isn't from your friend list as your support Servant.

While some times they may not adhere to the game mechanics for example, have a higher level than their cap or have more skills than they should at their level They won't be as good as a friend who maxed the level of the same Servant.

The same happens again when she decides to assist the protagonist and Mash for Camelot. Likewise in Babylonia, Merlin and King Hassan are playable as guest Servants but weren't rollable at the time of the chapter's release.

Both were later made limited-time only Servants. There are a few basic mechanics that shouldn't be difficult but take most players a bit of time to notice.

For instance, you can roll the Friend Points Gacha for free every day. And you can change the position of your support slot.

And you need to go into the "Formation" menu to set up your friend supports, or your only available support will be Mash and everyone will think that you are a noob.

Certain NPs depend on servant attributes that aren't visible in-game: Brynhildr's NP does extra damage to Servants she likes, which is a long and idiosyncratic list.

Gilgamesh's NP does extra damage to most Servants, except a short and fairly random list of ones which it doesn't.

His Interlude also was not officially announced with its upgrade simply listed as a bugfix for his skill on the website and secretly added along with Enkidu's Interlude.

Most Servants go into battle armed with their weapons normally, but sometimes you'll see them just whip something out of nowhere. For instance, Zhuge Liang's crane-feather fan just appears out of nowhere when he does a certain attack animation.

But it makes a kind of sense, since he's a Caster. Likewise, Emiya usually carries twin swords , but whips out a bow when necessary, and Sanzang Xuanzang pulls her companions' weapons out to attack.

Defensive Noble Phantasms like God Hand, Armor of Fafnir, or Kavacha and Kundala would be overpowered or difficult to implement, so the playable Servants just don't have them.

The reasons given are pretty shoddy, such as not being able to power Heracles properly or Karna somehow lacking pieces of his armor when summoned, so it's clearly just to balance gameplay.

If he did, it wasn't enough against Gae Bolg. Agartha ends with this text befitting its storybook theme. Part II begins with Chaldea overrun by the new villains, Da Vinci killed by Kotomine though she has a backup , the timeline once again in danger, and the heroes forced to evacuate the observatory.

The only saving grace is that they're in a position to set things right once again. He Knows About Timed Hits: Two of your three main allies in Shinjuku are Altria and Jeanne Alter, who flat out hate each other.

At multiple points, they nearly try to kill each other. Because the Horseman is more akin to an Urban Legend than an actual Heroic Spirit, he has to team up with Lobo for the two of them to count as an actual Servant.

In the game, he rides Lobo as his mount instead of his classic horse. The first fight against Solomon is this. Even though you defeated four of his Demon Pillars, he still oneshots Kintoki, Tamamo, and Shakespeare all at once, kills Andersen a minute later, and makes it clear that he sees the protagonist as no threat to him, leaving them alive on a whim.

Hey, Let's Put on a Show: In Salem, the protagonist, Mash, and the Servants have to perform a stage play every day as they are disguised as an acting troupe, each piece written by Shakespeare and Andersen.

The final confrontation with Tesla is on a thunderstorm above Buckingham Palace The final battle against Tiamat is done on magical flying platforms in front of her head.

The battle against the Cosmos Trees which serves as the final battle in each Lostbelt chapter is high above the clouds.

It's semi-ambiguous who's actually in the role of acting director when Da Vinci dies, due to Chaldea's hostile takeover by the Mages' Association and associated miscreants, except Gordolf helpfully specifies that she "passed away while serving as Acting Director".

And now it's his job. Historical Badass Upgrade For every class, there are a few Servants that represent people who were pretty much entirely normal in life, but in this setting have all sorts of supernatural powers.

Some upgrades are more extreme than others with writers and spies being particularly low tier while others like Abby have vastly superhuman abilities.

Anastasia Nikolaeva Romanova is also one bizarre case which she is only known for being killed in Red October in Russia and the stories of her impostors.

Here, she has a magus lineage which enables her to form a contract with Viy and gain ice powers. It's also inverted with some mythical figures.

Strong as Rama, Karna and Heracles may be compared to other Servants, they're still quite a bit weaker than they were in the stories they come from.

Almost a given with virtually all of the Servants bar a few. Mata Hari, for example, has been given a significant upgrade in the chest department, while Anastasia looks a lot more elegant and fey than her historical counterpart's surviving pictures.

Inverted with Caesar, who is depicted as morbidly obese in the game, despite both historical evidence and Cleopatra's in-universe claims indicating otherwise.

He's a bit evasive when it comes to explaining why. Villainous figures like Medea, the Minotaur Asterios , and Ishtar are given revamped backstories where they are much more sympathetic than in popular portrayals, though their bad sides are definitely acknowledged: Ishtar, for example, really will kill all her lovers and Asterios will slaughter anyone that treats him like a monster.

Their heinous deeds remain, but the game presents them as being either not entirely responsible for their actions or at least redeemable.

Jack and Liz, for example, are severely mentally ill rather than malicious and Altera, as she prefers to be called, is basically a robot programmed to destroy civilization.

Some characters like Karna have had their bad sides greatly downplayed in favor of making them more ideal heroes. This is acknowledged in-universe for many real-life victims of this trope, through the "Innocent Monster" skill.

Innocent Monster is given to Servants whose public perception is warped by rumors spread long after their death, warping the Servant's nature to obey these rumors even if they never actually did anything to deserve them.

For example, Antonio Salieri was Mozart's friendly rival and collaborator in life, but because historical fiction likes to blame him for Mozart's sudden death, Salieri has received the highest rank in Innocent Monster and his Servant form has become an Avenger who resents Mozart with his entire being.

Solomon stands out, going from a good if flawed man into the Big Bad who is trying to exterminate humanity.

This is eventually revealed to be an impostor and the true Solomon was if anything a better person than his historical counterpart.

Arjuna is altered somewhat to be not quite a villain but is definitely less heroic than his rival Karna. He's arrogant, can be quite under-handed, and is jealous of Karna's natural virtue, while he struggles to suppress negative emotions.

While his creation's crimes are presented as largely the same in the novel, Victor Frankenstein himself is somewhat more of a bastard and has seemingly lost the sympathetic traits he had in the book.

He even murders his second creation, Eve, and steals her body. Even though she was everything he was looking for, she wasn't strong enough to defeat the original Fran and thus he deemed her a failure.

Not only has he learned nothing, which you can argue of him in the book as well, but he's become a murderer himself.

Bishop Cauchon never really tortured Joan during the term of her trial due to the fact that she was still politically liable. For instance, it would take comparatively less energy to sublimate the surface than with the moons of Jupiter or Saturn.

Also, Ceres appears from all accounts to be rich in resources, which include water ices and ammonia, and has a surface that is equivalent in total land area to Argentina.

This level of energy is high enough that solar-power facilities could run on its surface. And being the largest body in the asteroid belt, Ceres could become the main base and transport hub for future asteroid mining infrastructure, allowing mineral resources to be transported to Mars, the Moon, and Earth.

Its small escape velocity, combined with large amounts of water ice, means that it also could process rocket fuel, water and oxygen gas on site for ships going through and beyond the Asteroid Belt.

Despite the benefits of a colonized or transformed Ceres, there are also numerous challenges that would need to be addressed first.

As always, they can be broken down into the following categories — Distance, Resources and Infrastructure, Hazards and Sustainability.

For starters, Ceres and Earth are on average approximately ,, km apart, which is 1. Hence, any crewed mission to Ceres — which would involve the transport of both colonists, construction materials, and robotic workers — would take a considerable amount of time and involve a large expenditure in fuel.

To put it in perspective, missions to Mars have taken anywhere from to over days, depending on how much fuel was expended.

Since Ceres is roughly twice that distance, we can safely say that it would take a minimum of a year for a spacecraft to get there. However, since these spacecraft would likely be several orders of magnitude heavier than anything previously flown to Mars — i.

And while NASA currently has plans on the table to build laser-sail spacecraft that could make it Mars in three days times , these plans are not practical as far as colonization or terraforming are concerned.

And while certainly feasible, no such drive systems exist at this time. These could be harvested from the Asteroid Belt, but the process would be time-consuming, expensive, and require a large fleet of haulers and robotic miners.

There would also need to be a string of bases between Earth and the Asteroid Belt in order to refuel and resupply these missions — i.

In terms of hazards, Ceres is not known to have a magnetic field, and would therefore not be shielded from cosmic rays or other forms of radiation.

This would necessitate that any colonies on the surface either have significant radiation shielding, or that an orbital shield be put in place to deflect a significant amount of the radiation the planet receives.

This latter idea further illustrates the problem of resource expenditure. The extensive system of craters on Ceres attests to the fact that impactors would be a problem, requiring that they be monitored and redirected away from the planet.

The surface gravity on Ceres is also quite low, being roughly 2. This would raise the issue of the long-term effects of near-weightlessness on the human body, which like exposure to zero-g environments would most likely involve loss of muscle mass, bone density, and damage to vital organs.

In terms of sustainability, terraforming Ceres presents a major problem. Under the circumstances, it seems like it would make more sense to colonize or paraterraform Ceres than to subject it to full terraforming.

However, any such venture would have to wait upon the creation of a Lunar base, a settlement on Mars, and the development of more advanced propulsion technology.

It was also require the creation of a fleet of deep-space ships and an army of construction and mining robots. However, if and when such a colony were created, the resources of the Asteroid Belt would be at our disposal.

Humanity would effectively enter an age of post-scarcity, and would be in a position to mount missions deeper into the Solar System which could include colonizing the Jovian and Cronian systems, and maybe even the Trans-Neptunian region.

Genesis, third planet of the star system 59 Virgo, can be found Although it's expected to have a shorter life-span than Earth's sun, it still has several billion years to go.

No large moon like Earth's orbits Genesis, but it possesses an asteroid-like belt of more than moonlets orbiting between ten and twenty thousand kilometers from its surface.

Most of these satellites have an irregular shape and tumble slowly in their orbits. From the planet's surface, the naked eye can plainly see more than of them forming a beautiful night time display.

The largest measures about twenty-eight kilometers long, but it lies so far out that it appears only slightly larger than a star when viewed from the ground.

Composition of the moonlets varies from nearly pure iron to siliceous rock. No one knows if the moons ever formed part of one larger moon, or if they are the captured remnants of a prehistoric meteor shower.

The moon belt exerts negligible tidal forces on the oceans, since the moons are distributed evenly around the planet. Principal tidal action is due to the pull of the sun, 59 Virgo.

Genesis is barely larger than Earth, with a diameter less than one percent greater and a gravitational attraction at the surface only one percent higher.

Land covers 21 percent of its surface. The bulk of it is divided into four continents: Harvestland, Virginis, Barrenland, and Maiden Spring.

Three continents have less area than Earth's average continent, but one, Harvestland, has more surface than Earth's Eurasian land mass.

The continents take a more closed form than continents on Earth and are separated by larger ex- panses of open ocean.

Genesis orbits 59 Virgo once every days in nearly circular orbit. Its day clocks iust over 12 hours, the shortest among the present colonies.

Its short day lessens extreme daily temperature variations, however. The planet's atmospheric pressure at mean sea level gauges just 55 percent of Earth's, but since the atmosphere contains 31 percent oxygen, Humans can breath it.

The lower atmospheric density reduces the heat transferred from the poles to the equator by atmospheric convection, causing somewhat greater temperature variations with latitude than Earth's.

Lower density also reduces the effective wind pressure, so even though wind velocities average somewhat higher than Earth's, their destructive and wave-generating forces are lower.

Genesis is believed to be much younger than the Earth, perhaps by as much as 1. The planet appears to contain more residual heat than Earth and exhibits much greater volcanic activity.

Flying over the surface, one rarely loses sight of active volcanoes. Except for its blue sky and white clouds, the natural surface of Genesis looks more like Earth's moon or Mars than a habitable planet.

Not one tree or one blade of grass breaks the monotonous expanse of cold grey rock, stony rubble and sand. No native animals, not even the smallest insect-like creatures, scurry across the empty waste.

There is no food, no soil, no single living thing! If ancient space travellers had landed on Earth half a billion years ago, they would have viewed a similar scene.

Life on all habitable planets began in the sea. Genesis is such a world in its earliest stage of development; so its only life exists in the oceans.

Because life evolves from the simple to the complex, most life on this young planet seems elementary when compared with the other colony worlds.

Sea life consists mainly of microorganisms. These tiny monocellular species fill all the functions in the life cycle from tiny one-celled photosynthetic plants, resembling Earth's diatoms, to tiny bacteria-like creatures that consume the dead remains of plants and animals.

Larger plants take the forms of simple seaweed while still other small plants containing only a few thousand cells float freely in the water.

Animals range in structure from tiny multicellular free-floaters and larger free-floaters resembling iellyfish to numerous species of tiny animals with external skeletons.

The latter creatures look like the trilobites which dominated Earth's seas in the Cambrian period, million years ago. Earth's phylum of arthropods, which today includes lobsters, insects, and spiders, traces its ancestry to the trilobites.

All animals on Genesis exhibit extremely simple behavior patterns; they have few instincts apart from the desire to eat and avoid being eaten.

Complex adaptations like the spider's web, the hermit crab's borrowed shell, and the symbiosis between ants and aphids have not even begun to emerge.

The discovery of Genesis by Captain Ben Alan and the crew of the Aurora in adtc, did not bring universal jubilation on Earth.

No statement illustrates the anguish this planet caused the pioneering movement than the following passage from Ben Alan's personal log.

The beautiful, blue sphere below us possessed breathable atmosphere, warm temperatures, no radiological hazards, and no evidence of intelligent life.

As the landing craft began its descent, we stared intently at the main screen which amplified the view below. We broke beneath a layer of clouds and glimpsed our first clear view of the grey landscape.

We came down in a desert! Thinking that surely it couldn't go on forever, we pressed forward, travelling at kilometers per hour, meters above the surface.

Four hours later upon reaching the seacoast, hydrocarbon scanners had not revealed the slightest chemical traces of life. Even Earth's most barren wastes would not have produced such readings.

We continued parallel to the shore for fourteen hours more, circumnavigating the entire continent without sensing a living thing on the land.

Yet carbon readings in the sea revealed some life there and proved our sensors were functioning. We took microspopic samples from many places, but even stagnant pools of water in the rocks didn't reveal a single living cell.

The next day and for fourteen days after, I dispatched landing parties to the surface. At last the awful reality dawned on us. This planet is a desert.

True, some elementary life exists in the sea which probably accounts for the oxygen atmosphere, but how could Humankind survive on those dreadful rock plains below?

Aurora remained on Genesis for four months, studying what native life there was. When it returned to Earth, Alan's report classified Genesis uninhabitable, but he appended the following comment to his recommendation.

The planet contains the fundamental conditions necessary to support our form of life. When our technology advances enough to allow us to transport much larger payloads across the interstellar space, then we will be able to bring enough equipment and enough supporting life forms from our mother planet to permit life as we know it to thrive there.

He went on to exercise his preogative as captain and named the planet, an unprecedented custom for a world considered uninhabitable. For 20 years no planetologist challenged Alan's conclusion.

The problems of colonizing his barren planet seemed insurmountable. Humans need more than food too. Few would voluntarily agree to spend their lives in a desolate wasteland.

Grass, trees, and other living animals may not seem like necessities of life, but early in the history of space travel, scientists learned how important they could be.

After more than two years on the first permanent Martian base, the total bleakness of that planet's landscape began to have serious psychological effects upon the trained and experienced travellers that staffed them.

No large and inexperienced group of pioneers could have coped with Genesis indefinitely. Yet even before the discovery of Genesis, events were under way that eventually made its colonization possible.

Contact with the Ardotians in adtc created a tremendous increase in the level of both Human and Ardot knowledge. Within a few years, the formulation of the Comprehensive Unified Field Theory led to the development of highly efficient matter-antimatter reactors.

These reactors allowed people to transport far greater cargoes across interstellar space at a fraction of the cost.

Both Humans and Ardotians soon became interested in Ben Alan's barren planet again. They reasoned that Genesis provided a rare opportunity for an advanced civilization to create a biologically perfect world, a world without disease, pests, vermin, even weeds!

All the Ardotians asked in return for their contribution were detailed reports about the progress of the experiment. Techniques for creating living soil from barren rock had to be developed.

The proper mix of desirable Earth species had to be selected, and safeguards to insure that Genesis would not become contaminated by pests and diseases from Earth had to be refined.

Finally, a large-scale evacuation plan had to be drawn up, should the entire proiect fail catastrophically. No detail escaped scrutiny.

As a final check, Ardotian computers analyzed the entire plan, independently assessed its probable outcome and made several important recommendations.

Planners chose the southernmost tip of Harvestland for the first settlement, which pioneers named Malthus. Situated at the edge of the southern tropic zone, the climate is warm and the ocean is protected from violent storms.

The colony organization followed the lines of a socialist de mocracy, similar in concept to the highly successful kibbutz used in the 20th century redevelopment of Israel.

The first pioneers brought food for five years, although the starship made the round trip to Earth annually, bringing still more food, equipment and new colonists.

Pioneers lived in temporary housing constructed from parts of the ship that brought them, early precursors to the residential spires of today's pioneering vessels.

At the same time, the pioneers began to develop aquaculture of both native and imported species to hedge against possible failure of the primary food supply.

The first pioneers had no resources for manufacturing or processing industrial goods. Most of them were biologists or farming technicians, with a smattering of the mechanics, programmers, and comtechs needed to keep their equipment functioning.

Life's foothold on the planet was assured as food production became self-sustaining at the end of the fourth year.

After that the slow process of building basic industries began, first with the importation of mineral recovery equipment, followed by critical manufacturing processes.

Development of Genesis has proceeded steadily, if more slowly than on worlds more bountifully endowed by nature.

Today, 92 years later, it boasts a modern, industrial society with many of the luxuries and conveniences of Earth. After six months, soil preparation crews an equipment began to work.

Giant combination soil preparation machines, larger than any previous built, performed the task. In one operation, these mechanical monsters broke rock into coarse chunks using laser drills, then ground fine with ultrasonic grinders and mixed it with nutrients and mulch from giant hoppers they dragged behind them.

Earth's natural soil is very fine-grained, but organic mulch within it inhibits its natural tendency to compact and congeal into a solid mass.

On Genesis, soil technicians must add a synthetic mulch prepared from seaweed. Since the mass of the synthetic humus cannot equal the mass of natural humus, special chemical treatments must augment it.

The addition of fixed nitrogen and other necessary plant minerals follows the mulch, and the soil is chemically balanced.

The addition of bacteria and worms of appropriate species complete the formation of synthetic soil. While the prep grass grew we began sprouting seedling trees in the mature soil of the developed area not far from my home.

Since no natural barriers existed to blunt the ferocious gales that blew off the south Genesean Ocean, protecting the young trees from wind damage became our most pressing problem.

Solid shelter of any kind would have been prohibitively expensive, but fortunately a wind-breaking field had been developed a few years earlier.

The field employed a special configuration of the g-field to slow inrushing air to a standstill in the space of two decimeters.

Unfortunately, the field would kill anyone who accidently walked through it, so its perimeter had to be guarded by sensors, coupled to visual, sound, and telepathic alarms to warn stray children or absent-minded scientists who might not heed posted warnings.

After two years huge transplanting machines began to move the seedlings from the nursery beds to the forest site. The machines passed over the seedling beds, picking up the young trees together with their roots and a clump of soil, then travelled out to the newly plowed forest and deposited the seedlings in holes dug by the machine itself.

Each machine carried about seedlings and planted at the rate of two per minute. The machines planted the trees in a predesigned pattern that allowed for optimum tree growth and insured that mature trees would someday provide natural shelter for future seedlings, thus avoiding the need to raise the young trees in a sheltered nursery.

A major conflict arose among the forest planning staff over the pattern in which the trees would be planted. Some wanted to plant the trees in regular rows resembling a European garden, while others wanted an irregular, pseudo-random pattern that would resemble a natural forest.

The forest, now quite mature, is one of my favorite vacation spots on Genesis. It gives me great satisfaction to walk among the towering trees and feel that I helped place them there.

Colonists are going to want to grow local food they can eat, the native plants and animals can be unsuitable as food in so very many ways.

Since plants and animals depend upon a circle of life, terraformers will have to transplant a minimal but viable Terran ecosystem that is self-sustaining.

And try to avoid importing anything that is a threat to said ecosystem, such as potato blight. And of course also import useful things that are not food, such as Bamboo.

There are some science fiction novels where aliens invade not by full-blown terraforming but simply by introducing alien hyper-invasive species to alienoform the Terran ecosystem the functional equivalent of introducing xenomorph -bunnyrabbits to Australia.

High's No Truce With Terra. The spray of compressed air pushed out thick-bodied probes biovats studded with antennae and lmobs.

Then the timers counted through and small wasplike rocket engines screamed, only for seconds but enough to break the balance that poised the probes so delicately between gravity and outward spiraling force.

The probes now yielded to gravity and fell Earthward on a long slanting descent. A panel opened in the lead probe and a thick package ejected.

Seconds later another, and then another and another and still more. Each probe clicked and shuddered and hissed and released panels and springs, and the thick packages fell blunt-nosed into atmosphere.

The heat dissipated rapidly, never reaching the precious payload behind the shield. Finally the speed fell to something sensible, friction was far behind, and more relays clicked in each probe.

The first probe began to tumble. Small tubes extended and a thin spray whipped away by centrifugal force from each tube. For two hundred miles the probe tumbled, ever lower, ever slower, still spraying its cargo of superseeds, genetically altered seeds for grass, wheat, alfalfa, corn, hay, all manner of plants, all mutated for swift growth under the most hostile of environments.

All along the flight path of Pegasus the larger probes fell away and spat flame and fell, the thick packages ejected and began their entry into the high atmosphere of Earth.

The Tumblers kept spraying across an area of Earth fifty-nine degrees north and south of the equator. Much of their payload would fall into the sea.

Just as much would fall to ground in a gentling rain of life. Beneath the Floaters, the ablation heatshields fell away to lighten the load.

Springs snapped out stiffly, blowing away door panels, ejecting long ribbons of nylon. Parachutes slowed down descent, valves opened, and helium gushed from containers into flyweight plastic.

Eggs, billions of eggs of spiders, honeybees, beetles, butterflies, earthworms rained gently to the largely barren land below.

The Tumblers and Floaters separated. Not yet the Floaters. They would drift for days and then for weeks, releasing their spore at timed intervals until, at last, the helium would seep through the balloon plastic and lift would decay.

Those still aloft, having escaped storms and lightning and cold, would then descend silently, also to be absorbed by earth or water and disappear: Marc Seavers knew thaf after their swooping curve about the Earth when they came back into direct observation of what remained of Hestia on the moon, no sign would be visible of the biovats that had left Pegasus.

Of course the campus lacked the black tumble of half-burned trees, snags, uprooted trunks. Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.

The time scale can be decades for example, after a wildfire , or even millions of years after a mass extinction.

The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through increasing complexity until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community.

A consequence of living is the sometimes subtle and sometimes overt alteration of one's own environment.

It is a phenomenon or process by which an ecological community undergoes more or less orderly and predictable changes following a disturbance or the initial colonization of a new habitat.

Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat, such as from a lava flow or a severe landslide , or by some form of disturbance of a community, such as from a fire , severe windthrow , or logging.

Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession , whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

Primary succession is one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation and other organisms usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from retreated glacier , is deposited.

In other words, it is the gradual growth of an ecosystem over a longer period. In contrast, secondary succession occurs on substrate that previously supported vegetation before an ecological disturbance from smaller things like floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and fires which destroyed the plant life.

In primary succession pioneer species like lichen , algae and fungi as well as other abiotic factors like wind and water start to "normalize" the habitat.

Primary succession begins on rock formations, such as volcanoes or mountains, or in a place with no organisms or soil. This creates conditions nearer optimum for vascular plant growth; pedogenesis or the formation of soil is the most momentous process.

These pioneer plants are then dominated and often replaced by plants better adapted to less harsh conditions, these plants include vascular plants like grasses and some shrubs that are able to live in thin soils that are often mineral based.

For example, spores of lichen or fungus, being the pioneer species, are spread onto a land of rocks. Then, the rocks are broken down into smaller pieces and organic matter gradually accumulates, favouring the growth of larger plants like grasses , ferns and herbs.

These plants further improve the habitat and help the adaptation of larger vascular plants like shrubs, or even medium- or mountainous-sized trees.

More beasts are then attracted to the place and finally a climax community is reached. A good example of primary succession takes place after a volcano has erupted.

The lava flows into the ocean and hardens into new land. The resulting barren land is first colonized by pioneer plants which pave the way for later, less hardy plants, such as hardwood trees , by facilitating pedogenesis , especially through the biotic acceleration of weathering and the addition of organic debris to the surface regolith.

An example of primary succession is the island of Surtsey , which is an island formed in after a volcanic eruption from beneath the sea. Surtsey is off the South coast of Iceland and is being monitored to observe primary succession in progress.

The soil depths increase due to decomposition of plant matter and there is a gradual increase of species diversity in the ecosystem.

The labels I-VII represent the unalike stages of primary succession. Secondary succession is when an ecosystem is diminished to a smaller population of species and it is doing its darnedest to expand.

You see this in a forest burnt to the ground by a forest fire. In rocketpunk this would be done in an interstellar colony on an alien planet, trying to remove the alien ecosystem locally and replacing it with a Terran ecosystem that can be used to do things like, you know, grow food to eat.

Secondary succession is one of the two types of ecological succession of plant life. As opposed to the first, primary succession , secondary succession is a process started by an event e.

Simply put, secondary succession is the ecological succession that occurs after the initial succession has been disrupted and some plants and animals still exist.

It is usually faster than primary succession as:. Many mechanisms can trigger succession of the second including facilitation such as trophic interaction, initial composition, and competition-colonization trade-offs.

The factors that control the increase in abundance of a species during succession may be determined mainly by seed production and dispersal, micro climate; landscape structure habitat patch size and distance to outside seed sources ; Bulk density, pH, soil texture sand and clay.

Imperata grasslands are caused by human activities such as logging, forest clearing for shifting cultivation, agriculture and grazing, and also by frequent fires.

The latter is a frequent result of human interference. However, when not maintained by frequent fires and human disturbances, they regenerate naturally and speedily to secondary young forest.

The time of succession in Imperata grassland for example in Samboja Lestari area , Imperata cylindrica has the highest coverage but it becomes less dominant from the fourth year onwards.

While Imperata decreases, the percentage of shrubs and young trees clearly increases with time. In the burned plots, Melastoma malabathricum, Eupatorium inulaefolium, Ficus sp.

Soil properties change during secondary succession in Imperata grassland area. Soil carbon stocks also increase upon secondary succession from Imperata grassland to secondary forest.

For more details on this topic, see Fire ecology. Generation of carbonates from burnt plant material following fire disturbance causes an initial increase in soil pH that can affect the rate of secondary succession, as well as what types of organisms will be able to thrive.

Soil composition prior to fire disturbance also influences secondary succession, both in rate and type of dominant species growth.

For example, high sand concentration was found to increase the chances of primary Pteridium over Imperata growth in Imperata grassland.

The byproducts of combustion have been shown to affect secondary succession by soil microorganisms. For example, certain fungal species such as Trichoderma polysporum and Penicillium janthinellum have a significantly decreased success rate in spore germination within fire-affected areas, reducing their ability to recolonize.

Vegetation structure is affected by fire. In some types of ecosystems this creates a process of renewal. Following a fire, early successional species disperse and establish first.

This is then followed by late successional species. Species that are fire intolerant are those that are more flammable and are desolated by fire.

More tolerant species are able to survive or disperse in the event of fire. The occurrence of fire leads to the establishment of deadwood and snags in forests.

This creates habitat and resources for a variety of species. Fire can act as a seed dispersing stimulant. Many species require fire events to reproduce, disperse, and establish.

For example, the knobcone pine "Pinus attenuata" has closed cones that open for dispersal when exposed to heat caused by forest fires.

This particular conifer grows in clusters because of this limited method of seed dispersal. A tough fire resistant outer bark and lack of low branches help the knobcone pine survive fire with minimal damage.

So we will count upon a native flora which, undoubtedly, will appear very strange to us. Of course, as you know, we are taking across with us our own seeds and our own spores.

We take so much for granted, don't we? You do not realize what has been supplied you by nature on this world of ours—until you come to count up what you must take along with you, if you hope to survive.

Keppler says that of some twenty thousand nectar insects, this one species pollinates more than all the rest put together.

The honey bee would take care of practically of this work, as his range is tremendous. There are a few plants—Keppler tells me—such as red clover, which he cannot work on; but his cousin the bumblebee, with his longer proboscis, could attend to them.

So, first and foremost among living things, we bring bees. Such an insect will be vitally necessary to keep the greenery from choking our new earth; and the one best suited for this job is, paradoxically enough, one of mankind's oldest scourges, the grasshopper.

He is an omnivorous feeder and would keep the greenery in check— after he got his start. Our first problem may be that he will not multiply fast enough; and then that he multiply too fast.

So to keep him in check, and also the butterfly and the moth, we will take parasitic flies. Here on earth, with a balanced and bewilderingly intricate economy already established, a tremendously longer list would be vital to provide the proper checks and balances; but starting anew, on Bronson Beta, we can begin, at least, with the few insects we have chosen.

Unquestionably, differentiation and evolution will swiftly set in, and they will find new forms.

Otherwise vegetation would fall down, never disintegrate, and pile up till everything was choked. A vial the size of your thumb holds several billion spores of assorted fungi— in case the spores of the fungi of Bronson Beta have not survived.

They are absolutely essential. Our space is so limited, and there is most tremendous competition. Birds offer a somewhat simpler problem; but possibly you have heard some of the arguments over them.

I confess I argued for warblers—yellow warblers. I like them; I have always liked them; and meadow larks. A dense atmosphere — almost entirely nitrogen.

And no oxygen — fortunately. But in the decades before the Exodus, many things happened to change our outlook on the Universe.

Some argued that even virulent pathogens and disease vectors should not be exterminated, but should be preserved under strict safeguards. It had long been agreed that we should not attempt any settlement on a planet with intelligent life-forms; the human race had a bad enough record on its home world.

Fortunately — or unfortunately! Suppose we found a planet on which animal life had just begun. Should we stand aside and let evolution take its course on the chance that megayears hence intelligence might arise?

But Death focuses the mind on the things that really matter: Was it possible to develop legal and moral codes applicable to all intelligent creatures, and not merely to the bipedal, air-breathing mammals who had briefly dominated Planet Earth?

It made him quite unpopular with those who argued that since H. Someone coined the effective slogan: It may be centuries before we get reports from all the seedships that went out.

And if some remain silent — well, the slime moulds may have won…. Many thought that they were too idealistic, and there was certainly no way in which they could ever be enforced.

But they were an expression of intent — a final gesture of goodwill towards a Universe which might never be able to appreciate it.

The element is far too reactive to occur in the free state unless it is continually replenished by plants — or their equivalent.

And even if animal life only rarely leads to intelligence, no other plausible route to it has ever been theorized. As you will see by the map, more than fifty per cent of the surface is ice-covered, to an estimated average depth of three kilometres.

All the oxygen we shall ever need! It will burn off the ice and simultaneously crack the steam into oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen will quickly leak away into space; we may help it with tuned lasers, if necessary.

Magellan, which has spent its entire existence in space, will finally descend to the surface of a planet. But for much of that time Sagan 2 will be quite livable — though the winters will be fierce until final orbit is achieved.

It will be time to awaken the nine hundred thousand sleepers still in hibernation, and present them with a new world. If changing an entire planet to suit human colonists is out of the question, the next best thing is changing the colonists to fit the planet much cheaper as well.

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